Australian Indigenous cultures are rich and diverse, as is the artwork they produce which can involve a wide range of media including painting on leaves, wood carving, rock carving, sculpture, ceremonial clothing and sand painting. Missionary colonists first promoted the creation and sales of authentic aboriginal art
as a way for Aboriginals to earn monetary support.
What began as a tourist trade has evolved into the creation of an art genre lauded by critics and embraced by art patrons. .
Authentic Aboriginal Art
Internationally recognized as a unique form of art, it is welcomed overseas and respected and admired by art critics everywhere. Of late, it has also come to the attention of not only art investors but also to the wider audience, as astute buyers realize its potential in the marketplace. Hailed as arguably the last great art movement, works produced emanate from a 40,000 year Culture and Tradition. Whilst steeped in what was originally viewed as ethnographic historics, the authentic aboriginal art produced are very often amazingly modern in design and colour and therefore aesthetically pleasing.
Authentic Aboriginal Art
There have been cases of some exploitative dealers (known as carpetbaggers) that have sought to profit from the success of the Aboriginal art movements. Since Geoffrey Bardon's time and in the early years of the Papunya movement, there has been concerns about the exploitation of the largely illiterate and non-English speaking artists.
"People are clearly taking advantage...Especially the elderly people. I mean, these are people that, they're not educated; they haven't had a lot of contact with white people. They've got no real basic understanding, you know, of the law and even business law. Obviously they've got no real business sense. A dollar doesn't really have much of a meaning to them, and I think to treat anybody like that is just… it's just not on in this country."Call for ACCC to investigate Aboriginal Art industry
Authentic Aboriginal Art,Tommy Carroll painting Nowanns – Doon Doon
Australian Senate Inquiry
In August 2006, following concerns raised about unethical practices in the Indigenous art sector, the Australian Senate initiated an inquiry into issues in the sector.
"The material they call Aboriginal art is almost exclusively the work of fakers, forgers and fraudsters. Their work hides behind false descriptions and dubious designs. The overwhelming majority of the ones you see in shops throughout the country, not to mention Darling, are fakes, pure and simple. There is some anecdotal evidence here in Darwin at least, they have been painted by backpackers working on industrial scale wood production."Sydney Morning Herald (2007) Backpackers fake Aboriginal art, Senate told
The inquiry's final report, handed down on 21 June 2007, made 29 recommendations, including:
Greater public funding for infrastructure in the sector.
More intensive policing efforts to try and eliminate unethical business practices.
Adoption of a code of practice across the sector.
Government agencies and collecting institutions to implement a code when dealing with Indigenous visual art.
The report also raised the prospect of law reforms if necessary to change the way the industry was regulated.
Authentic Aboriginal Art
Artlandish Aboriginal Art Gallery is showcasing to the World, one of the largest and most comprehensive on line Galleries of Authentic Australian Aboriginal Art and Artefact's.
Enjoy the wonderful talent of the artists presented, which reflects their country and a culture which is timeless.
Authentic paintings such as Rusty Peters and Tommy Carroll are available from Artlandish see their collection
Some say you have to be a bit crazy to mine opal, the heat, the flies, the isolation, but the sacrifices made can be very rewarding.
All the Australian opal fields are situated in arid inland areas of the Outback, and the opal is found at shallow depths, normally less than 30 metres, in deeply weathered rock in which there has been considerable silica movement.
What is opal?
Australian Opal is an amorphous form of silica related to quartz, a mineraloid form, not a mineral. 3% to 21% of the total weight is water, but the content is usually between 6% to 10%. It is deposited at a relatively low
temperature and may occur in the fissures of almost any kind of rock, being most commonly found with limonite, sandstone, rhyolite, marl and basalt. 97% of opal is produced in Australia.
Australian Opal ranges from clear through white, gray, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, magenta, rose, pink, slate, olive, brown, and black. Of these hues, the reds against black are the most rare, whereas white and greens are the most common.
The town of Coober Pedy in South Australia is a major source of opal. The world's largest and most valuable gem opal "Olympic Australis" was found in August 1956 at the "Eight Mile" opal field in Coober Pedy. It weighs 17,000 carats (3450 grams) and is 11 inches long (280 mm), with a height of 4¾ inches (120 mm) and a width of 4½ inches (115 mm). It is valued at AUD$2,500,000
The world's largest Opal, Olympic Australis
Sinking A Shaft
Although this is one of the most effective ways of finding opal, it is really hard work. The length of the shaft could be as little as three metres or as long as 20 metres. A drilling rig with a large bucket auger would save a miner several days of hard hand digging.
A variety of miner's tools are needed, including a hand windlass or motorised winch that is placed over the hole to lift dirt to the surface or by using large Vacuum machinery.
Puddling And Rumbling
This technique is used particularly at Lightning Ridge. Once the opal dirt has been transported from the shaft by trucks, puddling is performed at specially constructed dams.
A puddler is a large mesh-lined drum attached to a motor. This device rotates and turns the clay into sludge as water is pumped into the drum. The sludge escapes through the mesh. Only the hard pieces - rocks, stones and 'opal nobbies'- are captured in the mesh.
This mining technique is created by running over a large area with a bulldozer, slicing through thin layers of sandstone until the opal level is reached. Although this method is more expensive than shaft mining, the chances of finding opal are increased because such a large area is being covered.
In simple terms, a noodler is a person who goes over what other miners have discarded as 'dud' mullock heaps. All that is needed is a sieve and a very keen eye. An abandoned open-cut mine is another good place for a noodler, using a rake and sieve for tools.
Like the locals that live in the opal town of Coober Pedy South Australia, visitors can stay underground, at The Desert Cave Hotel.
Sleeping underground is a unique experience. Quiet, cool, dark and airy - the rooms are spacious with high ceilings. Most visitors say that sleeping underground gives them the best night's sleep they have ever had. It is an experience not to miss. The Desert Cave Hotel also has underground shops, a cafe, an opal interpretive centre, and an underground bar and gaming room. The hotel offers visitors the best opportunity to experience Coober Pedy 'dugout' living.
Underground Restaurant and Bar
Tours are also available in Coober Pedy, where you will be supplied with a hard hat, torch and handpick, so you can get down and dirty, fossicking for your own fortune of opal.
TYPES OF OPAL
Agate Opal. Banded variety of Opal.
Amatite. Opal in the form of thick mounds, formed from hot silica-rich springs. See also Geyserite.
Amber Opal. Opal with a brownish to yellowish background colour, resembling Amber.
Andamooka Opal. Opal from Andamooka, South Australia.
Banded Opal. Form of common opal with colour bands. Synonym of Agate Opal.
Bandfire Opal. Precious Opal with play of colours in wavy bands.
Black Opal. Precious Opal with a black, dark blue, dark green, dark grey or similar darkly coloured background or base
colour. Black Opal is the most valuable form of Opal.
Bone Opal. Opal pseudomorph after a bone.
Boulder Opal. Precious Opal from Queensland, Australia, found in the cracks of, or as coatings on, ironstone or sandstone boulders.
Cachalong Opal. Opaque, highly porous type of Common Opal.
Cherry Opal. Orange-red to bright red variety of Mexican Fire Opal.
Chloropal. Common Opal similar to Prase Opal, but with a lighter green hue.
Chrysopal. Common Opal similar to Prase Opal, but with a golden-green colour.
Claro Opal. Transparent Precious Opal from Mexico with an intense red, green, blue, and yellow play of colour.
Common Opal. Any Opal lacking play of colour.
Contra Luz Opal. Precious Opal where the play of colour is visible only when a light source is behind the stone. Coober Pedy Opal. High quality Precious Opal from Coober Pedy, South Australia.
Crystal Opal. Transparent to translucent Precious Opal where play of colour is visible on the surface and in the interior of the stone.
Dark Opal. Synonym of Black Opal.
Diatomite. Opal replacement of microscopic shells of diatoms (type of microscopic organism) clustered together. It is white, opaque, and chalky in texture. Synonym of Tripolite, Fuller's Earth, and Diatomaceous Opal.
Ethiopian opal form welo and Gondar ,new ly discovered opal fields dierect from opal wholesalers and miners
Fire Opal. Fire Opal is incorrectly used to describe Precious Opal, or Opal with play of colour. The true definition of Fire Opal is Opal with an orange to red colour. If the Fire Opal displays play of colour, it is more correctly known as Precious Fire Opal.
Flame Opal. Precious Opal where the play of colour consists of red streaks or bands that flicker like a flame when the stone is rotated.
Flash Opal. Precious Opal with large schillers that abruptly appear and disappear as the stone is rotated.
Flashfire Opal. Synonym of Flash Opal (above)
Fossil Opal. Opal pseudomorph of organic matter such as shell, bone, and trees.
Gelite. Opal (or Chalcedony) as an accessory mineral that acts as the bonding agent of Sandstone or other cemented rock fragments.
Geyserite. Opal formed from deposition of hot water springs. Also called Perlite, Fiorite, or Geyser Opal. See also Amatite.
Gilson Opal. Synthetically produced Opal.
Girasol. Yellow or orange variety of Precious Opal in which the play of colour seems to follow the sun as the stone is rotated.
Glass Opal. Synonym of Hyalite
Gold Opal. Common Opal with a golden hue.
Harlequin Opal. Precious Opal in which the play of colour is arranged in a consistent harlequin, diamond-shaped, or rectangular-shaped pattern that is very vivid. Harlequin Opal is one of the rarest and most prized forms of Opal.
Honey Opal. Transparent to translucent Opal with an orange to orange-brown, honey-coloured background. It may or may not display play of colour.
Hungarian Opal. Any Precious Opal from Europe. However, nowadays this term often refers to any White Opal, regardless of where it was found.
Hyacinth Opal. Synonym of Girasol
Hyalite. Colourless, misty-blue, or sky-blue transparent variety of Common Opal. Usually forms botryoidal masses as well as strange and unusual forms. All Hyalite fluoresces green.
Hydrophane. White, opaque, highly porous Opal, that, when placed in water, allows the water to seep into it. This causes the stone to become transparent and almost invisible while in the water.
Iridot. Old name given to Opal for a short period of time when Opal had a reputation of causing bad luck.
Isopyre. Impure, dark red form of Opal. Isopyre was once thought to be a separate mineral.
Jasper Opal. Brecciated Jasper in which the cementing material is Opal.
Jelly Opal. A transparent Precious Opal with a gelatinous appearance and a bluish sheen. Jelly Opal may also refer to a colourless, transparent Common Opal.
Lechosos Opal. Precious Opal with a milky-white background colour displaying a strong play of colour. May also refer to Opal with a strong green schiller.
Lemon Opal. Common Opal with a lemon-yellow colour.
Levin Opal. Precious Opal with long and thin, lightning-like flashes.
Light Opal. Synonym of White Opal.
Lightning Ridge Opal. Opal from Lightning Ridge, New South Wales Australia. Although different forms of Opal are found there, this term usually represents the high quality Black Opal found there.
Lithoxyl Opal. Wood Opal where the original structure of the tree is very apparent.
Liver Opal. Synonym of Menilite (below)
Myrickite black glass. A yellow-green Common Opal with black inclusions an imitation Opal produced from resin
Menilite. Opaque, greyish-brown form of Common Opal. Also known as Liver Opal.
Mexican Fire Opal. Form of transparent Opal from Mexico, usually with an orange or red colour, highly desired as a gem. Although scientifically considered a Common Opal, it is rather rare and much sought after. If it exhibits a play of colour, it is known as Precious Fire Opal.
Milk Opal. Opal with a milky-white colour. Controversy exists whether the name Milky Opal is coined for a milky white Common Opal or a milky white Precious Opal.
Moss Opal. Common Opal containing inclusions resembling moss.
Mother of Opal. Precious Opal with bright colour specks filling the pores of sandstone or ironstone.
Mother of Pearl Opal. Banded Opal used as cameos.
Mountain Opal. Opal from igneous environments. Also called Volcanic Opal.
Neslite. Common Opal similar to Menilite, but darker grey in colour. It was once a popular material for sword handles.
Nevada Opal. Opal from the Virgin Valley (Humboldt Co.), Nevada.
Onyx Opal. Common Opal resembling banded Onyx.
Opal Matrix. Thin layer of Precious Opal on host rock. Small rock fragments are used in jewellery.
Opaline. Opaline is synonymous with Opal Matrix (above), but was also an old term used to describe Opal from Australia.
Opalite. Opalite has many connotations. It may refer to an impure form of Opal
Opalized Bone. Synonym of Bone Opal
Opalized Fossil. Synonym of Fossil Opal
Opalized Shell. Synonym of Shell Opal
Opalized Wood. Synonym of Wood Opal
Painted Boulder. Sandstone boulders with a coating of Precious Opal. When used in jewellery, this term is synonymous with Opal Matrix.
Pearl Opal. Synonym of Tabasheer
Pineapple Opal. Opal pseudomorph after Ikaite that resembles a pineapple. It is found only in White Cliffs (New South Wales), Australia. The pseudomorphed mineral was originally thought to be Glauberite, but studies now prove it to be Ikaite.
Pinfire Opal. Precious Opal with very small, pinhead-size colour flashes.
Pinpoint Opal. Australian synonym of Pinfire Opal
Pipe Opal. Opal formed as a filling of long, cylindrical cavities in rock. Pipe Opals range in size from several inches to many feet.
Pitch Opal. Yellow to brown Common Opal with a pitchy lustre.
Potch. Australian term for Common Opal.
Prase Opal. Green to dark green form of Common Opal.
Precious Fire Opal. Fire Opal displaying play of colour.
Precious Opal. Any Opal exhibiting a play of colour.
Prime d'Opal. Synonym of Mother of Opal
Pyrophane. Precious Opal in which the play of colour wanders about and reappears at random. This term is sometimes incorrectly used to describe Girasol.
Queensland Opal. Synonym of Boulder Opal
Quinzite Opal. Rose to pink coloured Opal. It is usually without play of colour, but a few examples displaying play of colour are known. Quinzite Opal is synonymous with Quinzite, Quincite, Quincite Opal, and Rose Opal.
Radiolite Opal. Common Opal of a smoky-brown colour caused by inclusions of the exoskeletons of a unicellular marine organism known as radiolaria. May also be called Radio Opal.
Rainbow Opal. Precious Opal where the play of colour is seen in curved bands, somewhat resembling a rainbow.
Red Flash Opal. Precious Opal with red colour flashes that swiftly appear and disappear as the stone is rotated.
Resin Opal. Common Opal with a yellow-brown colour and resinous lustre.
Rumanite. Opal from Romania.
Seam Opal. Opal found in the seams or large cracks of rock. May also specifically refer to masses of white Common Opal containing bands of precious White Opal.
Semiopal. Term sometimes used to describe any type of Common Opal, but many times alludes to particular forms of Common Opal, such as Wax Opal, Prase Opal, etc. Semiopal is also written as Semi-opal, and is synonymous with Half-opal.
Shell Opal. Opal pseudomorph after a shell.
Slocum Stone. A synthetically grown Opal. Also called Slocum Opal.
Sun Opal. Name that describes several types of Opal. May refer to Fire Opal, Mexican Fire Opal, Honey Opal, or Amber Opal.
Tabasheer. Opal occurring as an organic by product. It forms by the hardening of a secretion issued from certain bamboo, forming a porous, rounded mass of Opal.
Virgin Valley Opal. Opal from the Virgin Valley (Humboldt Co.), Nevada.
Wash Opal. Waterworn Opal pebbles from alluvial deposits.
Water Opal. Synonym of Jelly Opal
Wax Opal. Yellow to brown Common Opal with a waxy lustre.
White Cliffs Opal. Opal from the White Cliffs, New South Wales, Australia
White Opal. Precious Opal with light body colours (white, yellow, cream, etc.). Differentiated from Black Opal, which has a dark background colour.
Wood Opal. Any Opal that formed a pseudomorph after wood from a tree, and retains the original shape and appearance of the wood. Wood Opal may refer to both Common Opal and Precious Opal, but the term usually refers to large pieces of Common Opal.
Yowah Nut. Small, rounded form of Boulder Opal from Yowah (Queensland), Australia in a nodules embedded in ironstone. Closely related to Boulder Opal, it occurs most often as walnut-sized ironstone nodules containing pockets, veining, or sprinklings of vivid Precious Opal.
Aboriginal religion, like many other religions, is characterised by having a god or gods who created people and the surrounding environment during a particular creation period at the beginning of time. Aboriginal people are very religious and spiritual, but rather than praying to a single god they cannot see, each group generally believes in a number of different deities, whose image is often depicted in some tangible, recognisable form. This form may be that of a particular landscape feature, an image in a rock art shelter, or in a plant or animal form.
As opposed to Christians and believers of many other religions who go to a church or a mosque to pray, Aboriginal People express their beliefs in spiritual rituals. In the old days when they all lived traditional life, they went to their sacred mountain or any other natural feature that was believed to be their creator (different tribes had different objects), and they performed spiritual ceremonies.
Similar to other religions, there was a time in Aboriginal belief when things were created. This “Creation Period” was the time when the Ancestral Beings created landforms, such as certain animals digging, creating lagoons or pushing up mountain ranges, or the first animals or plants being made.
Many Aboriginal People have also changed their beliefs since European invasion. Early missionaries forced them to learn the Bible, so there are some Aboriginal People who are Christians. There are even some Muslims, even though they are much fewer than Christians.
But most Aboriginal People haven't given up their original beliefs, they still believe in their own creation story, although probably in a new perspective. They now know that they have been in Australia for 60,000 years, so the Dreamtime has now changed from "the beginning of the time" to 60,000 years ago.
God is either necessary or unnecessary.
God is not unnecessary, therefore God must be necessary.
Therefore, God exists.
Dinosaurs Australia! Much of Queensland's Outback was once part of the 'Great Inland Sea' of Australia, resulting in the region being rich in fossils.
Queensland's Age of Dinosaurs spans three geological Periods, the Triassic, Jurassic and the Cretaceous Period, which includes some of the world's oldest evidence for dinosaurs.
During the time that Queensland dinosaurs roamed the land, swimming reptiles such as plesiosaurs, pliosaurs and ichthyosaurs dominated the seas. Their remains were preserved in rocks in central and western Queensland - site of a vast inland sea 100 million years ago.
Dinosaurs Australia! A carnivorous theropod, Banjo is the most complete meat-eating dinosaur skeleton yet found in Australia.
Australovenator has been coined as Australia's answer to Velociraptor for its speed, razor-sharp teeth and three large slashing claws on each hand. At approximately 5 metres long, 1.5 metres high at the hip and weighing 500 kg, Australovenator was many times bigger than Velociraptor.
Banjo is named after the famous Australian poet Banjo Patterson who wrote Waltzing Matilda in Winton in 1885.
Estimated to have lived 100-98 million years ago in the Mid-Cretaceous (Latest Albian) period.
Dinosaurs Australia! Much of Queensland's Outback was once part of the 'Great Inland Sea' of Australia, resulting in the region being rich in fossils. Visit Hughenden, Richmond and Winton on Australia’s Dinosaur Trail for your introduction to life during the Cretaceous Period. Discover the prehistoric creatures that roamed the land and marine reptiles which swam in ancient inland seas around 100 million years ago. You can also visit the world’s best-preserved dinosaur stampede at Lark Quarry Dinosaur Trackways near Winton.
Aboriginal Dream Time
Australian Aborigines also posses a number of equally fantastic legends of gigantic reptillian beasts whose descriptions and habits told for thousands of years would fit the exact description of monsters known only to scientific textbooks of Palaeontologists. According to the folklore of the former tribes of the area around Lake Alexandrina, South Australia, there once lived back in the Dream Time a giant reptillian beast which was taller than the trees and which a great hunter named Wyungare killed by spearing the creature. The monster was said to have moved quickly upon its hind legs whose feet possessed great claws. Its two front legs were too small to be useful and its had a fearsome head with sharp teeth.
Dinosaur Eggs Recipe
Hard-boil eggs and dye them green with food coloring. Use markers to speckle the eggs. Put the eggs in a "nest" (a basket filled with artificial grass). Invite the students to taste the "dinosaur eggs".
Aboriginal Australians have not just one culture, but about 400 different cultures across Australia, each with its own language, laws, traditions, and stories. Some of the languages are as different from each other as English is from Chinese, whilst others can be closely related, like Spanish and Portugese.
Some Aboriginal cultures are rich in stories and ceremonies tied to the night sky, while in others the sky doesn't seem to play such an important role at all.
In some Aboriginal cultures the Moon is male and the Sun is female, and there are many different versions of stories, in different languages, in which the Moon-man falls ill (the waning Moon), lies dead for three nights (New Moon), and then resurrects on the third day (the waxing Moon).
NATUREAboriginals see themselves as part of nature. We see all things natural as part of us. All the things on Earth we see as part human. This is told through the ideas of dreaming. By dreaming we mean the belief that long ago, these creatures started human society. These creatures, these great creatures are just as much alive today as they were in the beginning. They are everlasting and will never die. They are always part of the land and nature as we are. Our connection to all things natural is spiritual.' Silas Roberts, first Chairman of the Northern Lands Council.
MUSICAborigines have developed unique instruments and folk styles. The didgeridoo is commonly considered the national instrument of Australian Aborigines, and it is claimed to be the world's oldest wind instrument.
Clapping sticks are probably the more ubiquitous musical instrument, especially because they help maintain the rhythm for the song. More recently, Aboriginal musicians have branched into rock and roll, hip hop and reggae.
Artist Minnie Pwerle
ARTAustralia has a long tradition of Aboriginal art which is thousands of years old. Modern Aboriginal artists continue the tradition using modern materials in their artworks. Aboriginal art is the most internationally recognizable form of Australian art.
Tiwi island Footy!!
The Djabwurrung and Jardwadjali people of western Victoria once participated in the traditional game of Marn Grook, a type of football played with possum hide. The game inspired Tom Wills, inventor of the code of Australian rules football, which is now a popular Australian winter sport.
Similarities between Marn Grook and Australian football include the unique skill of jumping to catch the ball or high "marking", which results in a free kick. The word "mark" may have originated in "mumarki", which is "an Aboriginal word meaning catch" in a dialect of a Marn Grook playing tribe.
Aussie Rules has seen many indigenous players at elite football, and have produced some of the most exciting and skillful to play the modern game. Approximately one in ten AFL players are of indigenous origin.
In the National Rugby League 11% of the players were of Indigenous heritage. In 2008 Australia's national Rugby League team saw a record number of five Aboriginal players (38%) in their ranks of 13.Aboriginal people themselves account for only about 2.3% of Australia's population (2008 figures), yet they account for more than five times that percentage of elite footballers.
The Dreamtime (or Dreaming) is a term used to describe the period before living memory when Spirits emerged from beneath the earth and from the sky to create the land forms and all living things. The dreamtime stories set down the laws for social and moral order and establish the cultural patterns and customs.
The Dreaming, as well as answering questions about origins, provides a harmonious framework for human experience in the universe and the place of all living things within it. It describes the harmony between humans and all other natural things.For instance, an indigenous Australian might say that he or she has Kangaroo Dreaming, or Shark Dreaming, or Honey Ant Dreaming, or any combination of Dreamings pertinent to their "country".
The amazing looking Frill necked lizard is found in the Kimberley region of Western Australia, Southern New Guinea and Northern Australia. This is also known as frilled dragon. The skin of this animal folded back like frills against its head and neck, hence the name.
When the lizard is frightened, it gapes its mouth, exposing a bright pink or yellow lining; the frill flares out as well, displaying bright orange and red scales. This reaction is often used to discourage predators or during courtship. The lizard is a member of the agamid family. It a relatively large lizard, growing up to 91.4 cm.
The frill-necked lizard is found mainly in the northern regions of Australia and southern New Guinea. The lizard inhabits humid climates such as those in the tropical savannah woodlands.
The frill-necked lizard is an arboreal lizard, meaning it spends a majority of its time in the trees. The lizard ventures to the floor only in search of food, or to engage in territorial conflicts.
Like many lizards, frill-necked lizards are insectivorous, feeding on cicadas, beetles, and termites. They especially favour butterflies and moths, their larvae even more so. Though insects are their primary source of food, they also consume spiders, other lizards, and small mammals.
GA:NI King of the Lizards Dreamtime Story
A long time ago the frilled neck lizard had a nice clean chest but this was badly burnt which is why it is black today. Back in the Dreamtime when all the animals were people, there was an enormous flood and the river spread as wide as the eye could see. The people had been stranded on a small, higher part of land but there was no food and they were frightened because the flood-waters were still rising.
The clans gathered together and had a long discussion and decided that they had to cross the water to find better land that would provide food for them. The "clever men" instructed them to tie a smouldering fire stick to the chests of all animals before they commenced to swim so their progress could be seen.
The clever men sent snake-man first because they thought he was the smartest. For a long time they could see the fire getting smaller until it disappeared suddenly snake-man had drowned. The blue-tongued lizard was next and once again they could see the fire getting smaller until it disappeared he to had drowned. The clever men tried all the animals but all without success. All that was left was old Ga:ni, the frilled neck lizard. Ga:ni was very slow and slept most of the time. The clever men had to wake Ga:ni and tell him it was his turn to try and reach land. The clever-men instructed old Ga:ni to light a fire when he reached land to let them know it is safe to swim across.
Ga:ni told the clever-men to tie a long firestick to his chest a firestick made of gidgee because gidgee wood smoulders very slowly while the wind movement keeps it alight. The clever-men laughed at old Ga:ni this sleepy old fella but did as he requested. Ga:ni began his slow swim across the water and they could still see the twinkling light, although it was getting smaller.
Ga:ni's swim took all night and when the clever-men woke just before dawn, and looked out across the water, they saw to their surprise, a great fire blazing in the distance and knew that Ga:ni had found land. Their lives had been saved because old Ga:ni had been clever enough to survive the water crossing and the light the signal fire. During the long swim, the gidgee firestick had slowly burnt away until it had badly injured Ga:ni's chest. This left a charred, black scar on the chest of this brave frilled-neck lizard.
The clever-men promised that whoever found land should become the most superior person in their tribe and Ga:ni had saved their lives by showing them land with what remained of his firestick so all the animals swam over and joined him. They decided to have a corroborree in his honour and all painted up and danced around this tired, sleepy old fella. Ga:ni was now the king of the lizards and would remain so forever. Since his epic swim, he has always been treated with respect by both animals and humans.
Even today, frilled-neck lizards are often seen standing up straight on their hind legs their heads held back with pride and this displays the blackness on their chests that was the reward for great bravery in the past.
Michael J Connolly
Situated at Kimba, half way across Australia, the Big Galah was built by Roger Venning and family. It is eight metres high, two and a half metres wide and weighs over two tonnes. It is constructed of steel, high tension bird wire, fibreglass and gel coated and was erected in July 1993.
The Galah, Eolophus roseicapilla, also known as the Rose-breasted Cockatoo, Galah Cockatoo, Roseate Cockatoo or Pink and Grey, is one of the most common and widespread cockatoos in Australia.
The Galah is pale grey on top and pink below. The male has dark brown eye and female has red eye. Its crest varies from pink in Western Australia to white throughout the rest of Australia. Juvenile Galahs have a grey breast and a grey eye-ring.
Often seen in large flocks of between 30 to 1000 birds. In rain they like to hang upside down from branches or power lines, wings spread wide to catch the rain.
Galahs will often congregate and forage on foot for food in open grassy areas.
Galahs are found throughout Australia, except in the very dry desert regions, and dense forests areas.
The Galah, And Oolah The Lizard
OOLAH the lizard was tired of lying in the sun, doing nothing. So he said, "I will go and play." He took his boomerangs out, and began to practise throwing them. While he was doing so a Galah came up, and stood near, watching the boomerangs come flying back, for the kind of boomerangs Oolah was throwing were the bubberahs. They are smaller than others, and more curved, and when they are properly thrown they return to the thrower, which other boomerangs do not.
Oolah was proud of having the gay Galah to watch his skill. In his pride he gave the bubberah an extra twist, and threw it with all his might. Whizz, whizzing through the air, back it came, hitting, as it passed her, the Galah on the top of her head, taking both feathers and skin clean off. The Galah set up a hideous, cawing, croaking shriek, and flew about, stopping every few minutes to knock her head on the ground like a mad bird. Oolah was so frightened when he saw what he had done, and noticed that the blood was flowing from the Galah's head, that he glided away to hide under a bindeah bush. But the Galah saw him. She never stopped the hideous noise she was making for a minute, but, still shrieking, followed Oolah. When she reached the bindeah bush she rushed at Oolah, seized him with her beak, rolled him on the bush until every bindeah had made a hole in his skin. Then she rubbed his skin with her own bleeding head. "Now then," she said, "you Oolah shall carry bindeahs on you always, and the stain of my blood."
"And you," said Oolah, as he hissed with pain from the tingling of the prickles, "shall be a bald-headed bird as long as I am a red prickly lizard."
So to this day, underneath the Galah's crest you can always find the bald patch which the bubberah of Oolah first made. And in the country of the Galahs are lizards coloured reddish brown, and covered with spikes like bindeah prickles.
Some five million people are bitten by snakes each year. Most serious cases take place in poor rural communities and the victims are generally women, children and farmers.
Now that's a snake... king brown in Branxton, NSW Australia.
Now that's a snake... king brown in Branxton, NSW Australia.
Bites from venomous snakes kill at least 100,000 people a year, with many countries lacking the drugs and capacity to deal with the threat.
The Inland Taipan,also known as the Small Scaled Snake and Fierce Snake, is native to Australia and is the most venomous land snake in the world based on LD50 value.
The inland taipan is native to the arid regions of central Australia. Its range extends from the southeast part of the Northern Territory into west Queensland. The snake can also be found north of Lake Eyre and to the west of the split of the Murray River, Darling River, and Murrumbidgee River.
The Inland Taipan is dark tan, ranging from a rich, dark hue to a brownish olive-green, depending on season.Inland taipans adapt to their environment by changing the colour of the skin during seasonal changes. They tend to become lighter during summer and darker during the winter.
Its back, sides and tail may be different shades of brown and grey, with many scales having a wide blackish edge. These dark-marked scales occur in diagonal rows so that the marks align to form broken chevrons of variable length that are inclined backward and downward. The lowermost lateral scales often have an anterior yellow edge. The dorsal scales are smooth and without keels. The round-snouted head and neck are usually noticeably darker than the body (glossy black in winter, dark brown in summer), the darker colour allowing the snake to heat itself while only exposing a smaller portion of the body at the burrow entrance. The eye is of average size with a blackish brown iris and without a noticeable coloured rim around the pupil. It has twenty-three rows of mid-body scales, between fifty-five and seventy divided subcaudal scales, and one anal scale. The Inland Taipan averages approximately 1.8 metres (5.9 ft) in length, although larger specimens can reach lengths of 2.5 metres (8.2 ft).
The Eastern Brown Snake, often referred to as the Common Brown Snake, is an elapid snake native to Australia. This species is considered to be the second most venomous land snake in the world based on LD50 value.
In Australia 60% of all deaths caused by snake bites are from this fella.
The Eastern Brown Snake is found all the way along the East coast of Australia, from the tip of Cape York, along the coasts and inland ranges of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia. They are also found in arid areas of the Northern Territory, the far east of the Kimberley in Western Australia and discontinuously in parts of New Guinea, specifically northern Milne Bay Province and Central Province in Papua New Guinea, and the Merauke region of Papua Province, in the Indonesian part of New Guinea. Due to their mainly rodent diet, they can often be found near houses and farms.
Adult Eastern Brown Snakes are highly variable in color. Whilst usually a uniform shade of brown, they can have various patterns including speckles and bands, and range from a very pale fawn colour through to black, including orange, silver, yellow and grey. Juveniles can be banded and have a black head, with a lighter band behind, a black nape, and numerous red-brown spots on the belly.
This species has an average length of 1.5–1.8 m and it is rarely larger than 2 m. Large Eastern Brown Snakes are often confused with "King Brown" snakes (Pseudechis australis), whose habitat they share in many areas.
Black Snakes These snakes are found in every Australian state with the exception of Tasmania and some species are found in Papua New Guinea. They inhabit a variety of habitat types, from arid areas to swampland. All species are dangerous and can inflict a potentially lethal bite. Most snakes in this genus reach about 2m and vary in colour.
Some species are brown, where others may be black. The most recognisable and widespread species in the genus are the Red-bellied Black Snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus) and the Mulga Snake (King Brown) (Pseudechis australis). These snakes will feed on lizards, frogs, birds, small mammals and even other snakes. All species, except the Red-bellied Black Snake are egg laying.
How the snake got its poison
Long ago in the Dreamtime, the animals were very much bigger than they are today and the bite of a snake was not poisonous but a bite of a goanna was.
Mungoon-gali was a large goanna and because of his poisonous bite was quite a terror of the land. His favourite food was the flesh of blackfellas whom he used to devour in numbers. He wrought such havoc that all the other tribes held a meeting as they feared that Mungoon-gali would soon exterminate the blackfellas if something were not done to stop him. Ooyu-bu-lui the black snake spoke up and said that he could but they only laughed. Ooyu-bu-lui told them that by the time Yhi the sun has gone to her rest the next day, he shall have the poison bag of Mungoon-gali and promptly glided away.
Ooyu-bu-lui knew he could only defeat Mungoon-gali by being cunning as goanna was much bigger and stronger than he and above all, Mungoon-gali had the poison bag which had made him invincible for so long. Ooyu-bu-lui decided that he would follow Mungoon-gali to his camp and wait for goanna to wake from his sleep. When Mungoon-gali awoke, he saw black snake and quickly made a rush at him. Ooyu-bu-lui quickly told Mungoon-gali that he was there to warn him of a plot the tribes had planned against him and not to kill him. Mungoon-gali told black snake that if he told him the plot then he would spare his life and the lives of his tribe forever. Ooyu-bu-lui did not believe Mungoon-gali but goanna reassured black snake that he would keep his promise and to prove it he would give him anything he pleases. Ooyu-bu-lui said that he would only feel safe if he had his poison bag to hold while he told of the plot. Mungoon-gali refused and told Ooyu-bu-lui to choose something else but without goanna's poison bag, he was not going to tell. Determined to hear of the plot at all risks, Mungoon-gali reluctantly reached into his mouth and drew out the hidden poison bag and handed it to Ooyu-bu-lui who took the bag and went with it to his old place on the edge of the camp. Ooyu-bu-lui put the poison bag into his own mouth then began to Mungoon-gali of the plot. He told goanna that by the time Yhi had gone to her rest that night, one of the tribes was to get the poison bag from him and so take away his power to harm the Daens in the future. Before Mungoon-gali had time to realise that he had been tricked, Ooyu-bu-lui was gone.
Ooyu-bu-lui went back and showed the tribes that he now had the poison bag of Mungoon-gali. When the tribes asked for the poison bag to destroy it, Ooyu-bu-lui refused to give it to them so the other tribes tried to banish him from their camps. Ooyu-bu-lui told all the tribes that he would surely kill anyone who tried to stop him.
Since then, snakes have been poisonous and not goannas and they never meet now without fighting. But the poison bag is powerless to harm the goannas as Mungoon-gali, a great Wirinun, knew of a plant which, if eaten after a snakebite, made the poison powerless to kill or injure. As soon as a goanna is bitten by a snake, he rushes to this plant and eating it, is saved from any evil consequences of the bite.
This antidote has ever since been the secret of the goanna tribe left in their possession by Mungoon-gali who lost his poison bag by the cunning of Ooyu-bu-lui, the black snake.
NAIDOC stands for the National Aborigines and Islanders Day Observance Committee. Its origins can be traced to the emergence of Aboriginal groups in the 1920s which sought to increase awareness in the wider community of the status and treatment of Indigenous Australians.
NAIDOC Week celebrations are held across Australia each July to celebrate the history, culture and achievements of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. NAIDOC is celebrated not only in Indigenous communities, but by Australians from all walks of life. The week is a great opportunity to participate in a range of activities and to support your local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community.
Here are some ideas on how to celebrate NAIDOC
•Hold a flag raising ceremony
•Display Indigenous posters around your class room.
•Invite local Indigenous elders to speak at your school or workplace.
•Listen to Indigenous music.
•Study a famous Indigenous Australian.
•Research the traditional Indigenous owners of your area.
•Study Aboriginal arts and crafts.
•Read a Dreamtime story.
•Start your own Indigenous hall of fame featuring any local role models and achievers.
•Create your own Aboriginal art.
•Visit Indigenous websites on the Internet.
•Make your own Indigenous trivia quiz.
•Visit local Indigenous sites of significance or interest.
•Learn the meanings of local or national Aboriginal place names.
Wherever you live, you can take part in NAIDOC Week celebrations. To find out about NAIDOC Week activities in your area, contact your nearest ICC on free call 1800 079 098, except Nhulunbuy (1800 089 148), Kalgoorlie (1800 193 357) and Kununurra (1800 193 348).
Weird creatures and animals are common in Australia a recent photo posted on facebook is of a small hairless creature caught in a trap.According to locals in the town of Quilpie in Outback Queensland it was accidentally caught by a farmer in a wild dog trap (Wild dogs are big problem to livestock in Western areas of Queensland).
Locals say that these are just a species of hairless possums that are common to the area and have been sighted many times by locals during the night as like most possums they are Nocturnal.
Local aborigines are known to fear them and call them Devil Ghosts.
Local National Parks and wildlife rangers are investigating the area, and believe the photo is more than likely not fake, and is likely to be a possum with some kind of skin disorder, as certain times of year the sand flies in the area are thick, and cause skin diseases that can cause animals to lose their hair and have been known in the past to have killed thousands of Kangaroos and wildlife in the outback.
A supposedly tailless, five-foot tall ape photographed in Venezuela by François de Loys, a Swiss geologist, sometime around 1920. The picture caused an uproar in the scientific community, because only monkeys, not apes, are believed to inhabit the Americas. If genuine, the finding of such an ape would have thrown into confusion the accepted theory of primate evolution.
Yowies is the term for an unidentified hominid reputed to lurk in the Australian wilderness. It is an Australian crypt id similar to the Himalayan Yeti and the North American Bigfoot
Yowies origin (also "Yowie-Whowie" and yahoo) may lie in a mythological character in native Australian Aboriginal folklore. This creature's characteristics and legend are sometimes interchangeable with those of the bunyip. According to some writers, reports of yowie-type creatures are common in the legends and stories of Australian Aboriginal tribes, particularly those of the eastern states of Australia.
Yowies according to the Aborigines, the sounds emitted by these 'hairy people' varies from grunts to howling. They wandered the remoter forest regions of the eastern mountains ranges, often in small family groups, sometimes in pairs or singularly, sleeping in caves, rock overhangs or in open forest depending upon weather conditions.
Old Bungaree a Gunedah aboriginal ...said at one time there were tribes of them [yahoos] and they were the original inhabitants of the country-he said they were the old race of blacks... [The yahoos] and the blacks used to fight and the blacks always beat them but the yahoo always made away...being...faster runners.
Yowies were first sighted by a white man was released in the local Newspapers in a small country town we now know as Sydney. During the 1800's numerous reports followed through out NSW and also the rest of the country. The 1800's were a buzz with sightings of the creature around the country. Newspapers and magazines began writing about people's encounters as they were reported. In most of these reports, the creature was always described as "an ape" or "ape-like man." The same descriptions given today.
One such beast, was reported in a Sydney newspaper, to have been caught and taken back to England
and sold to a Yorkshire circus for 2000 pound
For 25 years, Rex Gilroy has trekked some of Australia's most rugged country in his search for the Yowie, or Great Hairy man.
Yowies research has shown, there are at least two known kinds of Yowie in Australia. There are the large Yowies that is normally between 6-10ft and the smaller, yet fully-grown variety that is roughly 4-5ft.
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