How to play the didgeridoo

There are no reliable sources stating the didgeridoo's exact age. Archaeological studies of rock art in Northern Australia suggest that the people of the Kakadu region of the Northern Territory have been using the didgeridoo for less than 1,000 years, based on the dating of paintings on cave walls and shelters from this period. A clear rock painting in Ginga Wardelirrhmeng, on the northern edge of the Arnhem Land plateau, from the freshwater period (that had begun 1500 years ago) shows a didgeridoo player and two songmen participating in an Ubarr Ceremony.

The didgeridoo is played with continuously vibrating lips to produce the drone while using a special breathing technique called circular breathing.This requires breathing in through the nose whilst simultaneously expelling stored air out of the mouth using the tongue and cheeks. By use of this technique, a skilled player can replenish the air in their lungs, and with practice can sustain a note for as long as desired.
Recordings exist of modern didgeridoo players playing continuously for more than 40 minutes; Mark Atkins on Didgeridoo Concerto (1994) plays for over 50 minutes continuously.

How to play the didgeridoo

Mullet Haircut

Eric Bana

“Business at the front, party at the back” was the mantra for the crowd of Australians sporting a mullet haircut at an inaugural festival.

Random Bloke
More than 150 people showcasing the hairstyle popular in the 1970s and 80s flocked to a small town north of Sydney called Kurri Kurri, swishing their locks and parading their chops to cheering fans.

David Spade

“It’s amazing what’s out there and Australia is the capital of the world for mullets.(Mmmm deadheat with possibly Alabama in the U.S.)
Yeeeeeeeeh Haaaa!!!!!

The Heart is a muscle Gang of youths

Gang of Youths was formed in Sydney, Australia in 2012.

Gang of Youths are an Australian indie rock group from Sydney. The band consists of principal songwriter David Le'aupepe (lead vocals, guitar), Max Dunn (bass guitar), Jung Kim (keyboards, guitar), Joji Malani (lead guitar) and Donnie Borzestowski (drums)

Their debut album, The Positions, peaked at No. 5 on the ARIA Albums Chart in May 2015 and was nominated for multiple ARIA Awards.

Gang of Youths second album Go Farther In Lightness  debuted at No. 1 on the ARIA Albums Chart in August 2017 and was nominated for 8 awards at the ARIA Music Awards of 2017, winning four: Album Of The YearBest GroupBest Rock Album and Producer of the Year (Gang of Youths & Adrian Breakspear).

Three tracks from Go Farther in Lightness were voted into the Triple J Hottest 100, 2017.

Their song, "The Heart Is a Muscle'", was used by Fox Sports (Australia) to promote the 2018 NRL season.

Australian War Memorial Canberra

Canberra was established in 1913 as the capital for the newly federated Australian nation.

Canberra was designed by American architects Walter Burley and Marion Mahony Griffin, and built on the shores of an artificial lake, which was named Lake Burley Griffin.
Major National facilities in Canberra, have made it a pretty cool destination for travellers.

Canberra is not far from the Snow fields

No 1 place to visit is the Australian War Memorial, it is awesome the best you will find anywhere in the world, huge tanks, planes,(they have a massive bomber plane indoors), cool interactive stuff for kids and adults, realistic trenches with gunfire and much much more, you will need at least a whole day here to see everything, or even two days.  This place has excellent reviews with major online sites i swear you will not get bored here, and it is a life changing experience and its FREE

Australian War Memorial

Big warship guns at the Australian War Memorial go left before you go inside, its a short walk and there are also huge tanks to see.

Australian war memorial 

Captain Cook

Captain James Cook was born, 1728-1779, in Marton, Cleveland about 30 miles from the town of Whitby. An adventurer and navigator in the Royal Navy, Cook is best known as an explorer and most notably for reaching the south-eastern coast of the Australian continent on 19 April 1770 where his expedition became the first recorded Europeans to have encountered the Australian Eastern coastline.

Cook's early life and childhood was spent in the villages of Marton and later Great Ayton, as one of the five surviving children of a Scottish farm labourer, also named James Cook, and his Yorkshire born wife Grace Pace. The school at which the young Cook attended in Great Ayton is now a small museum. In 1741 Cook began to work for his father as a farm labourer but in 1745 at the age of 16 Cook moved to the coastal village of Staithes to work as an assistant in a grocery shop. This move gave Cook his first glimpse and experience of the sea which would prove to be so central to his future successes. The post did not last and his employer, aware of Cook's enthusiasm for life on the ocean and his determination to go to sea, took him to Whitby where he was introduced to the Walker family (Captain John & Captain Henry Walker - who independently owned ships); Quaker ship owners engaged in the coal trade between the North-East and London. Captain John Walker's ships traded between London and the North and it was on this route that Cook began his sailing career on board the Freelove carrying coal to London in 1747. He stayed with Captain John Walker, having positions on various ships and voyages from October 1746 to June 1755 (approximately 9 years later) when he was offered command of his own ship. By this point, however, Cook had decided to leave the relative safety of Whitby and at the beginning of The Seven Years War with France he volunteered with the Royal Navy on board HMS Eagle. After 2 years he joined HMS Pembroke where he first witnessed the ravaging effects of scurvy whilst crossing the Atlantic Ocean. In 1762, having risen to the rank of Master, Cook married Elizabeth Batts of Shadwell, 13 years his junior. He went on to be present at the captures of Louisburg and of Quebec, and, after the Seven Years War was over, he charted the coasts of Newfoundland. He was shuttling across the Atlantic every year, and that is when he insisted on best navy practice with regard to diet and the prevention of scurvy.

The routes of Captain James Cook's voyages. The first voyage is shown in red, second voyage in green, and third voyage in blue. The route of Cook's crew following his death is shown as a dashed blue line

Cooks' skills, dedication and intellectual reputation eventually brought him to the notice of the Royal Society which led to his appointment to lead HM Bark Endeavour in her epic voyage to the Pacific. Her mission was to carry Admiralty and members of the Royal Society to observe the transit of Venus from Tahiti and to explore the possibility of the existence of a Great Southern Continent. As a Whitby-built collier, solid and flat-bottomed and thus easy to beach and repair, the Endeavour was familiar to Cook and he took command, as lieutenant, on what was to carve the way for a two further monumental voyages. Each voyage not only furthered Cook's impressive career but were also pivotal in furthering scientific understanding and exploration. 

The first voyage (during which Cook circumnavigated and charted New Zealand) with HMS Endeavour and second and third on board HMS Resolution HMS Resolution saw Cook become the first man to circumnavigate the globe in both directions, from east to west then west to east respectively, and the publication of his personal journals gained him higher reputation still within the scientific community. His first voyage established the charting of the east coast of Australia and the entire coast of New Zealand, and the second, dispelling the notion of a Great Southern Continent, sailed south to Antarctica, achieving the first Antarctic Circle crossing in 1773.

The third of Cook's voyages, this time on-board HMS Resolution, in search of the North West Passage through the Bering Straits, ultimately ended in Cook's demise during a fight with the local inhabitants on the island of Hawaii in 1779.

Outback to the Capital

(l-r) Federal Assistant Minister for Rural Health, Dr David Gillespie MP; RDAA President, Dr Ewen McPhee; Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull; and RDAA CEO Peta Rutherford 

Peta with Senator Bridget McKenzie discuss Rural health policy and strategy.

Peta Rutherford grew up in Wodonga, enjoying the best rural and regional life had to offer. She worked for Medicare for 10 years, and from there given an opportunity with Queensland Health which would move her from city living in Brisbane to experience remote living in Charleville and rural living in Kingaroy. Peta was a member of the team back in 2005/06 that worked on the Queensland Rural Generalist Pathway. This was in addition to a number of other medical workforce projects, including the medical recruitment campaigns for Qld Health, registrar training expansion that she undertook in four years working in QH Corporate Office.


A new adventure saw her move with her family out to Charleville to take on a hospital management role in the South West Health Service  District. This was a significant change from project and strategic planning work in corporate office to front line health service management of Charleville, Cunnamulla hospitals, Augathella, and Quilpie MPHS’, Morven and Thargomindah outpatients and Waroona Residential Aged Care facility. She learnt more about river systems and stock route maintenance than she ever thought she would need to, but with the 2009 Charleville floods, and the evacuation of the hospital and the aged care facility, it certainly came in handy.

Charleville Hospital Flood

After three years in Charleville, Peta moved her family to Kingaroy the peanut Capital to commence as the Cluster Operations Manager responsible for the facilities in the South Burnett region of Darling Downs Hospital and Health Service. During her four years there, she was a recommencement of surgical services at Kingaroy, initial planning for a new facility at Kingaroy, commenced a patient transport system to support South Burnett people accessing services at Toowoomba Hospital, and an expansion of the Kingaroy renal service. 

The peanut silos in Haly Street are Kingaroys  tallest structures and most visible landmark.

Now as the Chief Executive Officer of Rural Doctors Association of Australia, she will apply her knowledge from over 20 years experience in the health sector, and her understanding having lived in these communities to advocate at a national level for improved access to services and for more care to be delivered locally where it is safe to do so. Still getting used to the cold, but has survived her first Canberra Winter.

View of Canberra from Duntroon Royal Military college

Rural Doctors Association of Australia Website

Byron Bay Splendour in the Grass

Byron Bay has several beaches which are popular for both swimmers and surfers. It is a resort popular town with both domestic and international tourists, The area is also noted for its wildlife, with the whale watching industry  a significant contributor to the local economy.

An ocean walkway runs from the centre of town to the Cape Byron lighthouse. This allows visitors to walk and cycle to the lighthouse.
Temperate and tropical waters merge at Byron Bay, making it a hugely popular area for scuba diving and snorkelling. Most diving is done at Julian Rocks which is part of the recently established Cape Byron Marine Park and only a few minutes boat ride from Main Beach.

Byron Bay  lies close to subtropical rainforests, and areas such as the Nightcap National Park with the Minyon Falls are all within easy reach of the town.
Byron Bay is now also a popular destination for Schoolies week during late November and early December.


Byron Bay also has a number of regular markets including a weekly farmers' market at the Butler Street Reserve every Thursday with over 70 local farmers selling fresh produce. There is also a Byron Community Market held on the same site on the first Sunday of each month and the Artisan Market held on Saturday evenings at Railway Park from October to Easter. There are three annual specialist Beachside Markets held in January, Easter and September.


Events held at Byron Bay include yoga retreats, pagan gatherings, music festivals such as the East Coast Blues & Roots Music Festival at Easter and Splendour in the Grass, the Byron Bay Writers Festival, the Byron Bay Film Festival, Byron Bay Surf Festival, Byron Spirit Festival and the Byron Underwater Festival.

Splendour in the Grass

Considered to be Australia's biggest winter music festival, Splendour has evolved from a boutique one day festival held at Belongil Fields on the outskirts of Byron to a three day extravaganza of big name bands a new Australian music now held on a dedicated site 30 minutes north of Byron. Splendour is usually held on the last weekend of July or the first weekend in August.

Getting There

A bus station in Jobson Street is serviced by Greyhound Australia, NSW Train Link and Premier Motor Services coach services from Sydney and Brisbane.

Much work has been done to the Pacific Highway making for a more enjoyable drive. Whenever driving long distances, driver fatigue should be avoided by sharing the driving and taking rest breaks every 2 hours. With breaks, Byron Bay is about a 9 hour drive from Sydney and about 2 hour drive from Brisbane.

Hunting Accidents

Hunting accidents According to the International Hunter Education Association, approximately 1,000 people in the US are accidentally shot by hunters every year, and just under a hundred of those accidents are fatalities. Most victims are hunters, but non-hunters are also sometimes killed or injured.

Fluorescent orange clothing has become standard equipment for hunters. It is even called "hunter orange." Because it looks so bright to humans (but not most game animals) and looks like nothing in nature, it prevents other hunters from mistaking a person for an animal, or shooting in your direction. Hunters who wear hunter orange are seven times less likely to be shot than those who don't wear it.

Assume every gun is loaded
Control the muzzle. Point your gun in a safe direction
Keep your finger off the trigger until you are ready to shoot
Be sure of your target and beyond

There are many types of hunting, but only one real type of hunter. The true hunter is respectful of others and of their property. He has great respect for his prey, and will never, ever shoot when he doesn't reasonably expect to kill cleanly.

Respect the landowner and his property
Show respect to other hunters and non-hunters
Give respect to the wildlife and its habitat
Follow all state laws and regulations
Use equipment adequate for the game being hunted and be proficient with that equipment.




 Australia is essentially a Western culture influenced by the unique geography of the Australian continent, the diverse input of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, the British colonisation of Australia that began in 1788, and the various waves of multi-ethnic migration that followed. The predominance of the English language, the existence of a democratic system of government drawing upon the British traditions of Westminster Government, Parliamentarianism and constitutional monarchy, American constitutionalist and federalist traditions, Christianity as the dominant religion, and the popularity of sports originating in (or influenced by) the British Isles, are all evidence of a significant Anglo-Celtic heritage. Australian culture has diverged significantly since British settlement in 1788.

The oldest surviving cultural traditions in Australia—and some of the oldest surviving cultural traditions on earth—are those of Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Their ancestors have inhabited Australia for between 40,000 and 60,000 years, living a hunter-gatherer lifestyle. In 2006, the Indigenous population was estimated at 517,000 people, or 2.5 per cent of the total population

In 2014, 24.6% of Australians were born elsewhere and 43.1% of people had at least one overseas-born parent; the five largest immigrant groups were those from the United Kingdom, New Zealand, China, India, and Vietnam.


Australia encompasses a wide variety of biogeographic regions being the world's smallest continent but the sixth-largest country in the world. The population of Australia is concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts. The geography of the country is extremely diverse, ranging from the snow-capped mountains of the Australian Alps and Tasmania to large deserts, tropical and temperate forests.
Neighbouring countries include Indonesia, East Timor and Papua New Guinea to the north, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and the French dependency of New Caledonia to the east, and New Zealand to the southeast.


The Australian mainland has a total coastline length of 35,876 km (22,292 mi) with an additional 23,859 km (14,825 mi) of island coastlines.There are 758 estuaries around the country with most located in the tropical and sub-tropical zones. Australia claims an extensive Exclusive Economic Zone of 8,148,250 square kilometres (3,146,057 sq. mi). This exclusive economic zone does not include the Australian Antarctic Territory. Australia has the largest area of ocean jurisdiction of any country on earth. It has no land borders. The northernmost points of the country are the Cape York Peninsula of Queensland and the Top End of the Northern Territory. The western half of Australia consists of the Western Plateau, which rises to mountain heights near the west coast and falls to lower elevations near the continental centre. The Western Plateau region is generally flat, though broken by various mountain ranges such as the Hamersley Range, the MacDonnell Ranges, and the Musgrave Range. Surface water is generally lacking in the Western Plateau, although there are several larger rivers in the west and north, such as the Murchison, Ashburton, and Victoria river.


Giants Australia

The World was completely covered in giants on every continent before and after modern man appeared on the scene.
The Proof is everywhere, or was. On every continent, except South America, all (remains) were confiscated and vanished. ALL!
In one case in America, 60 skeletons 10 to 12 feet tall were found in a cave by some farmers. Every single one vanished. And in their place were put fake artifacts and the heights were changed to between 6 and 8 feet, everywhere.
Only old stories of eye witnesses are left to dispute the “Official Story”.
“There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare [children] to them, the same [became] mighty men which [were] of old, men of renown.” Gen 6:4

In old Pleistocene river gravels near Bathurst, N.S.W. huge stone artifacts-clubs, pounders, adzes, chisels, knives and hand-axes-all of tremendous weight, lie scattered over a wide area.
A fossicker searching the Winburndale River north of Bathurst discovered a large quartzitised fossil human molar tooth, far too big for any normal modern human. A similar molar of chert fossilisation was also recovered from ancient deposits near Dubbo, N.S.W. Prospectors working in the Bathurst district over 40 years ago frequently reported coming across large human footprints in shoals of red jasper.

Some of these have been rediscovered over the years and give every appearance of being of great antiquity. The point raised by these discoveries is that there once existed on the Australian continent giant tool-making hominids who preceeded the aborigines (Austroloids)by many thousands of years. For, it is certain that the aborigines were never the first inhabitants of this continent. Even they admit in their ancient folklore that this land was inhabited by many races of man, as well as giants, long before them.

Green Island - Cairns Queensland Australia

Green Island is 27 km offshore from Cairns in North Queensland. Most visitors travel to Green Island on commercial charter boats from Cairns. Commercial charter boats depart from the Reef Fleet Terminal at the end of Spence Street. Travel time to the island varies between 50 and 60 mins.
Commercial helicopter and seaplane services also operate to and from the island.

The island and reef are part of the traditional sea country of the Guru-Gulu Gungandji Aboriginal people. They know the island as Wunyami. Today the Guru-Gulu Gungandji people maintain a close connection with the island.
Green Island has been a popular tourist destination for more than a century. The island became a national park in 1937, a marine park in 1974 and part of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area in 1981. The surrounding waters form part of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and Great Barrier Reef Coast Marine Park and are within in the Scientific Research (Orange) or Marine National Park (Green) zones.

Green Island resort offers facilities for day visitors as well as luxury overnight accommodation.

Green Island draws more than 300,000 people each year from all over the world. Due to this high level of visitation Green Island is important to the regional economic base and is a significant recreation and tourism destination in the region.

Coal seam gas, shale gas and fracking in Australia

Coal seam gas (CSG) and the gas that comes from shales are chemically very similar. They generate the same amount of heat and CO₂ when burned in your heater or at an electricity power plant. And both coal seam gas and shale gas produce about half the CO₂ of brown coal.

Fracture stimulation of coal and shale reservoirs, also known as fracking, consists of injecting a high-pressure mix of water, sand and chemicals into the reservoir.
The high-pressure water creates fractures in the reservoir. After the fracture is created, the injector pumps are shut off, the water flows back into the well, the sand stays in the fractures keeping them propped open and gas starts to flow via the fractures to the well bore.
Fractures created by this process are designed to grow tens of meters in height above the point in the well bore where they are initiated.
There is a slight risk that this fracking process can break out of the gas reservoir and grow into distant shallower aquifers.

The oil and gas industry say that contamination of a shallow aquifer via fracture stimulation has never happened in the 1.5 million fracking jobs that have been performed in the past 60 years.

However, the New York Times recently reported a case where this might have happened. Interestingly, the Times says an unusual conduit was required in the above case; the fracture stimulation did not leak directly into the aquifer, but to a nearby improperly abandoned standard well bore.
Shale reservoirs are deeper than CSG reservoirs, and are thus further away from the shallow surface aquifers on which many communities and rural properties rely. This mitigates risks associated with the fracking process.
A more realistic – but less sensational – community concern is over industrial activity. Drilling and fracking wells requires heavy equipment, which is brought in on several dozen large trucks.
Drilling and fracking a well can be a busy and noisy process that can last a few days for shallow coal seam gas wells to several weeks for the deepest shale wells. It can be quite disruptive to those living nearby.

The Australian shale gas reservoirs currently being evaluated are in remote South Australia, the Northern Territory and Western Australia. This remoteness tends to minimise the community impact.


Outback Cooking equipment

  A little outback snack to keep me going!

Water is probably your most important thing to pack when your outback. Good clean water is essential for not only drinking, but also for outback cooking. Some water may be available from streams etc, but who knows the quality of this water? Take some purification tablets with you and boil the water before drinking if sourcing it this way.
Only carry water in storable food containers designed for this and do not mix water and fuel containers up if you are carrying fuel as well. Carry water in at least a couple of different containers then if one breaks or leaks, you still have at least one container with good water.

If your going to do some cooking I have listed some equipment you might think about taking.
Your outback cooking equipment is designed for extended use and not just a once off camping trip. So look after it. If you have cast iron  (camp oven, saucepans, frying pans), they need to be kept cleaned and looked after to stop rust and corrosion.

Camp Oven
  • Trivet – to place dishes on inside the camp oven
  • Pie dish to fit the camp oven
  • Load tin to fit the camp oven
  • Pizza tray to fit the camp oven
  • Camp Oven lid lifters
  • Shovel
  • Matches
  • Firelighters
  • Gas stove (two burner)
  • Gas bottle
  • BBQ plate
  • Hot plate or grill to place over your fire
  • Billy
  • Saucepans with lids
  • Frying pan
  • Jaffle iron
  • Pair of thick leather gloves
  • Gas bottle adaptor. This is used for your gas lantern

  • Can opener with bottle opener
  • Swiss army knife with cork screw
  • Egg rings
  • Mesh toaster
  • Tongs
  • BBQ Mate
  • Egg lifter
  • Mixing bowls
  • Measuring jug
  • Measuring spoons
  • Basting brush
  • Serving spoon
  • Slotted serving spoon
  • Potato peeler
  • Grater
  • Strainer
  • Bread Knife
  • Large sharp knife
  • Cutting board
  • Good pair of scissors
  • Serving plate and bowl

 Eat With:
  • Plate
  • Bowl
  • Mug
  • Knife
  • Fork
  • Spoon
  • Steak knife
  • Tea spoon
  • You can buy picnic baskets that have all of these included in one handy basket.

Other Items:
  • Aluminium foil
  • Cling wrap
  • Paper towel
  • Plastic bottles
  • Plastic storage containers

 Cleaning Equipment:
  • Plastic bags
  • Wash up bucket
  • Dish washing detergent
  • Dish cloth
  • Non-stick scourer
  • Tea towel
  • Dish brush
  • Brush and shovel

Where is Manus island ?

Map showing most of Papua New Guinea with Manus Island / Province to north and Austrailia's northern tip to south west

Located in the north, Manus Island is the smallest province in PNG with an area of 2,100 square kilometres. As of a 2011 Census, it had a population of 50,321.

Manus is a traditional name for a group of fishing people who inhabit coastal areas of Manus Island.  The name Manus differentiates them from other groups with differing customs and languages.

Welcome to Manus Isl - Uploaded by Bolokes on

These people were good seafarers and traders.  There is a traditional story that they arrive in the Admiralty Islands some hundred of years ago sailing in 200 canoes from the east.

The offshore immigration detention centre on Papua New Guinea's Manus Island, which is set to be expanded under the Australian federal government's new asylum seeker policy, is one of the most controversial processing centres in the Australian network.

LEN BUNDU Pngports lorengau BM with David Sales kids cooling off at MOMOTE   - Uploaded by posus45 on

Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd sealed the deal with his counterpart, Papua New Guinea Prime Minister Peter O’Neill, in Queensland on Friday 19th July 2013 in a mutually beneficial pact: PNG will take in asylum seekers in exchange for a wide range of economic and social benefits, including funding assistance for education and health reforms, as well as security. The pact is reported to costs billions of dollars.

The Admiralty Islands are a group of eighteen islands in the Bismarck Archipelago, to the north of New Guinea in the south Pacific Ocean. These are also sometimes called the Manus Islands, after the largest island. These rainforest-covered islands form part of Manus Province, the smallest and least-populous province of Papua New Guinea. The total area is 2,100 km2 (810 sq mi). Many of the islands are atolls and uninhabited.

The larger islands in the center of the group are Manus Island and Los Negros Island. The other larger islands are Tong Island, Pak Island, Rambutyo Island, Lou Island, and Baluan Island to the east, Mbuke Island to the south and Bipi Island to the west of Manus Island. Other islands that have been noted as significant places in the history of Manus include Ndrova Island, Pitylu Island and Ponam Island.

Dr Karl

Dr Karl's more notable undertakings was his part in a research project on belly button fluff, for which he received an Ig Nobel Prize in 2002. He received the Australian Father of the Year award in 2003. In the 2006 Honours list, he was made a Member of the Order of Australia.
In 2012, Kruszelnicki was named as a National Living Treasure by the National Trust of Australia (NSW).
Main-belt asteroid 18412 Kruszelnicki has been named after him.

Karl Kruszelnicki is a scientist, who is best known as an author and science commentator on Australian radio and television. He is often referred to as Dr Karl.
As of mid-2012, Dr Karl has written 31 books, along with numerous lecture series (utilising material that often ends up in his books, or vice versa). Some of these lecture series and books have been televised for events such as Science Week, with him supplying voice overs and sometimes appearing in Claymation.

In August 2000 Karl was one of first eight Australian Apple Masters to be announced (there are fewer than 100 in the entire world). The Apple Masters Program celebrates the achievements of people who are changing the world through their passion and vision, while inspiring new approaches to creative thinking.

Emu Australia

"Major emu migrations occur about one year in seven

"The southward movement of tens of thousands of emus in certain seasons is one of Australia's greatest examples of wildlife migration

The Emus’ migration routes are also influenced by climate. As they can find more food in humid regions the birds wander always to places were rain was falling down recently. It’s not yet clear how Emus orientate themselves and can detect rain from several hundred kilometers away. Researchers believe this is a combination of sighting distant rain cloud formations, smelling rain, and hearing the far-off sound of thunder from distances the human ear cannot.

In Western.Australia, the 100-year-old fence, now called the State Barrier Fence, is the longest manmade structure in the state and is visible from space. It runs for 1170km through the state's southwest, from the Zuytdorp cliffs north of Kalbarri to east of Ravensthorpe.
Originally erected to keep rabbits from spreading westward, the fence is undergoing a multi-million dollar upgrade to protect more agricultural lands in the southwest from 'pest' species, including wild dogs, dingos, emus and kangaroos. It includes major plans for a new barrier, up to 700km long, through pristine woodlands leading down to Esperance, and $5 million has been put aside for that.

Viv Read, invasive species director for WA's agriculture department, says the plan is a response to the region's farmers, who complain of a rising incidence of wild dog attacks and crop damage from flocks of emus. "Extending the fence is a non-lethal way of controlling vermin and the alternative is baiting, shooting or trapping.
"The primary purpose and major benefit of the State Barrier Fence is to minimise emu impact on cropping areas," Viv says. "Major emu migrations occur about one year in seven


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